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Resuscitation for Adults (CPR)

Updated: Jan 8

The chain of survival.



Most causalities feel and look very ill before the heart stops beating (Cardiac arrest).

An early call for help might prevent cardiac arrest in the first place - so don't wait!


In cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is urgently needed to get oxygen to the heart and brain to prevent cell depth.


The best chance of restarting a heart is with a "defibrillator". Survival rates reduce by to 10% for every one-minute delay in delivering a defibrillation shock. For this reason, automated External defibrillators (AEDs) have been designed for anyone to safely use in an emergency.


Resuscitation (CPR For Adults)



(D) Danger

Make sure that you, the causality and any bystanders are safe.


(R) Response

Gently shake the shoulders and ask loudly "are you alright?"

If they respond, keep them still, find out what is wrong and get help if needed.


(A) Airway

Turn the casualty on to their back if necessary and open the airway.

Place your hand on the forehead and gently tilt the head back.

Using your fingertips, lift the chin to open the airways.


(B) Breathing

Look, listen and feel for normal breathing for no more than 10 seconds.

Please notes: In the first few minutes after cardiac arrest, a casualty may be barely breathing, or taking infrequent, slow and noisy gasps. DO NOT confuse this with normal breathing.


CALL 999 AND SEND FOR A DEFIBRILLATOR!


Ask a helper to call if possible. If you make the call, stay with the casualty if possible and activate the speaker function on your phone to help normal breathing.


(C) Circulation

Kneel at the side of the casualty and give chest compression:

- Place the heel of one hand in the centre of the chest, place your other hand on top and interlock your fingers.

- Keep your arms straight and position yourself vertically above the casualty's chest.

- Press down on the breastbone to a depth of 5 - 6 cm. Then release all the pressure without loosing contact between your hands and the chest.

- Avoid applying pressure over the ribs, the bottom end of the breastbone or the upper abdomen.

- Do 30 compression's at a rate of 100 - 120 per minute.


Rescue Breaths

After 30 compression's, open the airway again and give rescue breaths:

- Pinch the soft part of the nose closed. Allow the mouth to open, but maintain the chin lift.

- Take a normal breath and seal your lips around the casualty's mouth.

- Blow steadily in the the mouth, while watching for the chest to rise, taking about one second as in normal breathing.

- Keeping the airway open, take your mouth away from casualty and watch for the chest to fall as air comes out.

- Take another normal breath and blow in the casualty's mouth once more to achieve a total of 2 rescue breath. Do no interrupt compression's by more than 10 seconds to give 2 breaths.

- Return your hands without delay to the centre of the chest and give another 30 compression's.


Continue with compression's and breaths at the ratio of 30:2


More than one rescuer?

Change who dose CPR every 2 minutes to prevent fatigue. Minimise delays when changing and do not interpret chest compression's.


DO NOT interrupt CPR unless:

- A health professional tells you to stop

- You become exhausted: OR

- The casualty is definitely waking up, moving, opening eyes and breathing normally.



Credit: First aid (Made EASY)

Edition Eleven 2019

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